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Axial Volcano, ASHES

FeatureID: 
Ashes
Name Alias(es): 
ASHES, Axial Seamount
Vent Sites: 
Crack
Daves
Hairdo
Hell Vent
Inferno Vent
Medusa
Marshmallow
Mushroom
Gollum
Ropos
Phoenix
Styx
Steve Mound
Virgins daughter
Virgin
White
Temperature
Maximum Temperature: 
348
Location
Latitude: 
45.9333
Longitude: 
-130.017
Ocean: 
Region: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Depth (m)
Maximum or Single Reported Depth: 
1540
Tectonic setting: 
Full Spreading Rate (mm/a): 
56
Host Rock: 
MORB, E-MORB
Deposit Type: 
PMS, polymetallic massive sulfides
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
Hammond et al. (1990): "The ASHES vent field encompasses an approximately 200 m × 1200 m area of active venting which is located adjacent to the southwest caldera wall."; small vent fields with active sulfide deposits and low-temperature Fe-oxide and silica chimneys in the caldera of an axial seamount; high-temperature venting (330 C) and a lot of diffuse low-temperature venting; axial seamount (volcano), hotspot influence; NEMO Observatory, New Millenium Observatory, the first multidisciplinary observatory established on a mid-ocean ridge (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/realtime/index.html); a U.S. OOI regional scale node is planned for Axial Volcano
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
see Tunnicliffe et al. (1985)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
1984 submersible Alvin
References
Discovery References (text): 
[Malahoff, A., et al., (1984) High temperature hydrothermal fields - Juan de Fuca Ridge - Axial Volcano, Eos Trans. AGU, 65, 1112
ASHES (Axial Seamount Hydrothermal Emissions Studies) expedition (1986) Geol. Surv. Can. (unpubl. data)]
Other References (text): 
Tunnicliffe, V., et al. (1985) The hydrothermal vent community on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Biol. Soc. Wash. Bull., 6: 453-464
Hammond et al., J. Geophys. Res. 95, 12875-12893, 1990, Relationships Between Lava Types, Seafloor Morphology, and the Occurrence of Hydrothermal Venting in the ASHES Vent Field of Axial Volcano, doi:10.1029/JB095iB08p12875
Embley et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95, B8, 12785-12812, 1990, High-Resolution Studies of the Summit of Axial Volcano, doi:10.1029/JB095iB08p12785
Rona & Trivett, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 109, 57-71, 1992, Discrete and diffuse heat transfer at ASHES vent field, Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge
Herzig et al. (1997) Hydrothermal activity and rift-induced tracers at Axial (Juan de Fuca ridge): Results of cruise SO-109 of R/V Sonne-ROPOS. InterRidge News 6(1): 35-38.
Butterfield, D.A. et al, 2011a. Fluid chemistry through an eruption cycle at Axial Seamount 1998–2011. Abstract V14C-07 presented at the American Geophysical Union 2011 fall meeting, December 5–9, 2011, San Francisco, CA.